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tv   Fareed Zakaria GPS  CNN  October 21, 2012 7:00am-8:00am PDT

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"state of the union." i'm candy crowley. if you missed any part of today's show, find us on itunes. just search "state of the union." be sure to watch cnn at 7:00 p.m. tomorrow for the third and final coverage of the debate. fareed zakaria gdp is next for our viewers in the united states. this is gps the global public square. welcome to awe of you around the united states and the world. i'm fareed zakaria. first up, kofi annan. the former secretary-general of the united nations and. i'll ask him whether there's any end in sight for that nation's brutal war, then the u.s. isn't the only major power picking a president for the next few weeks. i'll talk with beijing's reporter e van osnos. also i'll talk to the education
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innovator sal khan, the founder of khan academy about how best to teach our kids. and what does a company with almost 700 planes and tens of thousands of trucks worry about? fuel. i'll sit down with fedex ceo fred smith to talk about the future of energy. that crucial subject, the future of energy is also at the heart of our latest gps special which airs tonight at 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. eastern and pacific. in global lessons, the roadmap for powering america will take you around the world to bring you ideas about energy back home. but first here's my take. the second presidential debate has been studied andablized mostly as a prize fight. who punched hard, who missed a swing. that's fine. but there was a substantive aspect to the debate as well. president obama actually showed up this time and he was engaged and arctticulate as was governo romney. as a result we got a sense of the issues and there's a
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reported honorable difference between these two candidates. the central question is what will grow the american economy? governor romney's basic answer is lower tacks and a more streamlined tack code and fewer relg lagss. president obama's answer to the same question would be investments in education, infrastructure, science and technology, as well as support for energies. both arguments have merits to them. so the question is which is our most urgent problem now. well, the united states is the seventh most competitive economy in the world. it's dropped a bit over the last four years. overall, however, whether compared with our own past of, say, 30 years ago when airlines, banks and telecommunications were tightly control by government rules or compared with other countries, the united states remains a pretty business-friendly place. the u.s. economy boomed in the 1950s with tax rates that were
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much higher than today, and germany, the country that has connell out of the current crisis best is not exactly a model for low tangss and low regulation. a as i've often pointed out america is worse off than it was 30 years ago in infrastructure, education, and research. the country spends much less on infrastructure and by 2000 9d federal funding for research and development was half the share of gdp that it was in 1960. the result is we're falling behind and fast. a decade ago the world european ranked the stricture fifth in the world. the u.s. spends only 2.4%. they noted in 2010 whereas europe spends 5% and china, 9%. in the 1970s, america led the world in the number of college graduates. as of 2009 we were 14th among the skuntry's tract. reversing that decline will cost
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money. in other words, the great shift in the u.s. economy over the past 30 years has not been a dramatic increase in taxes and regulation but rather a decline in investment in human and physical capital. now, we should really push on both fronts a better tax and regulatory system and more investments, but on the subject he's right to emphasize investments. you may not think he's a good president but, by the way, as governor romney pivots to the center he talks about spending on retraining and educating and exports. let's get started. joining me now, co-fee annan, the former u.n. secretary-general and the author
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of a new book interventions, a life of war and species. welcome, kofi. >> i'm happy to be here. >> one of the things you talk about is now at the center of the news. >> yes. >> i have to ask you. ultimately you wrote a "financial times" article in which you said the major powers have to come together if syria's going to be solved. do you think that the united states needs to change its attitude in some way to make this work? >> i think the united states and russia have to find a way of working together, coming together, analyzing the situation, and deciding on the way forward, to protect the common interests that everyone has in the region. in the past, we've had -- there's been too much finger-pointing. divisions are normal. you will have divisions in every human endeavor. the challenge is to have the
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leadership, to brace those differences and come up with an approach that will solve the problem, and this is where i think u.s. and russia will have to come together and work on the syrian problem. >> do you think military intervention could work here? >> i'm dead certain it will not work. it will make the situation much worse. >> why? >> first of all, libya -- people refer to libya as an example. syria is not libya. syria is located in one of the most volatile regions on the world. syria is next to iraq, next to lebanon where we have major problems, and in a region where some jihadist elements, and as we know, they evenen been crossing into syria, and because of the nature of the syrian
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society, which is a mosaic. they talk about syria and sunni alone, you have them, they are the vast majority but you also have the christians, the troops, the syrians, the turks. they may neither be with the government nor the rebels. >> but you know people look at the violence and they say -- the economist magazine this week has come out in favor of intervention, but they're not clear what that means. they say, well, we should do something. that isn't the feeling of a lot of people. >> that's a feeling of lots of people and a certain group from the beginning. i mean that is a frup that propagated the idea. i've never heard of anything of the sort. it is a piece of unmitigating nonsense, in effect saying don't even try to resolve it
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peacefully. don't give the syrians hope. give weapons and let's kill each other. >> you know who said that. in the vice-presidential debate paul ryan named you and said the administration put their faith in kofi annan and that was the problem. >> no. and he was dead wrong. he was dead wrong. honestly this is one of the first situations where i've seen people claim that an attempt to immediate complicates and allows more killing to go on. and in almost every situation, we try to find a peaceful solution. if it works, well and good. you save people. now we have syrians living through incredible traumas, and they're the ones we should be crying for. not making statements of don't attempt to resolve it peacefully. if they were to go in with a military intervention -- and by the way, i don't sense any
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urgency of countries wanting to rush in and intervene. yes, some are sending in weapons but that's quite different from the kind of intervention. but sometimes by making these statements and raising the hope of the people that calvary is on the horizon, you complicate the situation and encourage the fighting and killing to go on. and if it's not going to come, why should you look at all of the solutions. >> one of the criticisms often made is there was faith placed in the russians, that the russians had special influence with assad and they were never going to give in because they regarded assad as a crucial alie. you met with putin. >> yes, i did. >> and you asked frank questions of him. >> yes. i had a frank discuss with put p and his team.
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they made it clear. they realized assad will have to go, but how and when. what they do not want is a k chaotic breakdown. the west keeps saying asaid must go and the louder they shout it, the deeper he digs in. and then they go to them. in geneva when all the foreign ministe ministers met with the prime ministers from the middlest oorks we all agrees its with impossib impossible. including chinese. they september it. it would mean new interim government. >> then what happened? >> then i had hoeps way one day.
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when they came to new york they met with the connell and the rest on champion ter 7. the chinese, the americans, the russians told us it could not sep. and, of course it got vetoed. i'm confidence they'll have to go back to it. >> so you think the only solution is of the jen ee that debate which you think is a sense of employet cal solution. >> essentially. the fact that my side wins and the other septembers, it's not dpoij to happen this the environment. thiscy why people have to realize there's no political
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solution. noechb has been able to convince me one side or the other would win or bring piece to syria. >> we have so many other things to talk about. tll's just so many things but this is a great pleasure. kofi annan. >> thank of you. nice to be here. i will be part of cnn's coverage there night starting at 7:00 p.m. iron. up next. the other major i development. china's leadership. what will that mean for change for the roast the world? 't have. neutrogena®.
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here in america we're understandably fix stated on november 6, election day. but halfway around the world there's another regime change in the offering. november 8 is the day china begins its 18th national congress during which its next set of leaders will be announced. what does it mean for the world ee second largest economy and what does it mean for chinese relations. i have a guest with me, evan osnos. welcome. >> glad to be here. this is an skploord moment. i've been there for seven years and i never felt it. this is a moment of acute anxiety for the leadership and alsz for regular people. it's anxious for the leadership because they realize the people they put in now are going to be
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confronting a range of issues that frankly are more difficult than anything they've faced over the last several years. for the people on the street the anxiety is they frankly doan know very much about the people who are going to be running they're country. what they know is it's a fwrun of men, seven. china doesn't have a leader. the first among leaders. among them will be xi js jinping. they have some exposure abroad. most importantly perhaps they've all succeeded within the system. they're men who have thrived within the communist party and they're going to do what they can to maintain the status quo and do with as little as they can probably get away with. >> let's talk about the strength. there were three planks to that.
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the first was economic reform. market economics but mainly an export-driven model. version of south korea, singapore, japan. you talk about it. >> deng somehow ping dealt with demograph demographics. he had a number of young people. could put them to work in famtries and that would be the life blood of cha that's economy. for 30 years they've had 10% growth. they brought 500 million people out of poverty. what they've also done in the last ten years is they've exhausted the value. also that model of creating these enormous and in many cases
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state-owned enterprises and bringing people from the countryside to work in them, in the end it meant you had a large gap. you had some people who were winning extraordinarily well within the system and you had peoples who income was not rising as fast. wa you've seen is the gap is larger. it's larger than the united states. this has become an enormous source of tension and they realize they need to challenge. >> this was mejt to be a tech knock kracy rngs merit batesed and what we're finding is there's intense fighting. the nature of the ambitions of people trying to get on it or the standing committee and the second is the degree to which there's a huge per vasive and vast corruption of the things you think of.
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>> in a sense the corruption is on a scale we've never seen. now, the question is how much does it matter? can a country go through this kind of extraordinary corruption? >> it's happened in history. japan, korea, the united states in the 19th centuries with historically corrupt. what they have is free law, independent courts an free it has -- recognizes it ha this corruption problem but it doesn't necessarily have the institutional. even though china doesn't have one man, one vote. what it has is this extraordinary vibrant internet.
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that experts the kind of force on the government. if you go around the country, on the street these days, there's enormous frustration. it's not enough to give me food to eat. now i want more. that expectations gap is very, very volatile and it is it's really to satisfied these grieg extend tases after to be proamerican. you talked to average chinese and certain officials you agree they have confrontation and the united states has essentially decided to contain china. >> there's an unfortunate pattern if grow back through history which san existing super power. i think they have an expectation
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they'll do something to curve china's rise. recently we had these protests in beijing which were against japan involving issues over the i lanlsd. what it really was about was competition between the chew na a and the united states. ultimately it's about china and united states and supremacy. c china allows its liter to guarder around tech. so i have to go-go go get the actually thing. in some kalss they'll be answer gri at the unstate. in other situations you're allowed to complain to the
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united states. >> do you this the clie sneeze have a preference between obama and romney? >> i think they even surprised themselves by how much they don't like mitt romney. they thought he was their man, organized the olympics and he's had pretty strong rhetoric on china and they might be happy with the status quo. >> my plane. >> my pleasure, thanks. >> i have the right to education, i have the right to pleetd to sing, i have to right to go to mael market. that it relieved their headache fast. visit today for a special trial offer. visit perform, compete and grow. and people are driving this change. that's the power of human resources. the society... for human resource management and its members know... how to harness that power, because we help develop it.
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now for our what in the world segment. taliban opened fire on a school bus. two girls were shot. at first it seemed a familiar story. the taliban, afteral, has bombed hundreds of schools, especially for gills.
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here's what's new. mass protests ensued against the taliban and in favor of women. that's startling and refreshing in pakistan. this past week thousands of protesters thronged to the streets to rally for one person. 14-year-old malala you zaf sigh. she was not an accidental target. the taliban directly sought her out and shot her in the head. they not only wanted to kill her but what she says. >> koran says. koran didn't say that girls are not allowed to go too school. >> malala exposed the lie of islamic extremists and they were willing to kill her for it. but she's survived and so has hair argument. her courage in taking on the taliban has insfiered moderate
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pakistanis. we've been waiting for this kind of moment for a while. what will it take for moderate pakistanis to unite against extremism? for years now fundamentalist groups have tried to term them boo a breakcy. they've scared girls from going to school, suppressed women, but where was the pushback just last year when the governor spoke out he was gunned down. outside the court his killer was greeted with rose petals. where was the public outcy? perhaps the last time we saw sustained public anger against the taliban was three years ago when a video of a woman being flogged circulated on the internet and on pakistani tv. that moment led to mass support of military action to the taliban. so 3r57s the tied is turning
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wunts again. pakistani's often blame the west. protesting against americans, drone strikes or even against youtube but the real enemy lies wn and it took a 14-year-old girl to bring that to people's attention. pakistan's youth literacy rate is only 71%. as a nation, 80%. 90% when you take the whole world in into account. girls fair especially badly in pakistan. in the nation it's 95. in the world who world it's 97. you don't need a world bank data bank for this. ask any girl in pakistan. women are often seen as the stealth reformers of islam. as they press for their rights it will push for more.
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politicians have been hesitant, a 14-year-old girl has led the charge. here's wishing her a complete recovery so she can get back in the fight for her country and her religion. we'll be right back. up next the ceo of fedex talking about america's energy future. don't miss it. questions? anyone have occasional constipation, diarrhea, gas, bloating? yeah. one phillips' colon health probiotic cap each day helps defend against these digestive issues with three strains of good bacteria. approved! [ female announcer ] live the regular life. phillips'. [ female announcer ] live the regular life.
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so i brought it to mike at meineke. we gave her car a free road handling check. i like free. free is good. my money. my choice. my meineke.
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i'm candy crowley in washington. i want go straight to beirut where nick paton walsh is monitoring a tense situation. nick. >> reporter: candy, earlier on today after a funeral for a top intelligence official slain on friday, an angry crowd surge toward the prime minister's office here. tear gas used, flares used, live rundowns of gunfire, those angered demanding the resignation of a government too close to syria and having not done enough to stop friday's assassination. we're seeing a calming of this particular scene. they triering to talk to them. most importantly the military enforced down one side street evidently sending the message that it's time for the crowds to go home.
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this is the center of bay ruchlt this will cause many to worry. they're afraid of copy cat as i cross the country. friday's assassination causing many to be on edge and tensions are uneasy. >> please stay tuned to cnn. he'll be there for us. nick, thank you. keep us posted and stay safe. now back to "fareed zakaria gps." >> i wanted to tell you about the latest gps special which is viewing tonight for people in north american. it's called "global lessons:. we take you to france which gets 75% of its electricity from nukes with no problems. we'll talk about the immense sun as an edge source and how the united states is similar to saudi arabia in one important
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way. i think you'll enjoy it. at 8:00 and 11:00. right now, though, a look at why we need to look for alternatives to petroleum or the man who should know. fred smith is the ceo of fedex. his company's fleet of almost 700 planes and more than 90,000 cars and trucks burn an astound 1g.5 billion gallons of petroleum last year alone. he's on a mission to change that. thanks for joining me, fred. >> glad to be here. >> tell me about fedex's view of the global economy because you have an almost unique position because you're -- if anyone's shipping anything they're shipping it via fedex, ups, or dhl. >> beginning of the spring you've seen a significant slowdown in the world trading economy. largely because of europe's problems. china got rich by exporting
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things to the united states and europe so it's not coincidental that their economy is declining relative to their previous spectacular growth, particularly in terms of their exports to europe and to a lesser degree the united states. and our economy is growing but only slightly. >> let's talk about gas prices because this must be a subject near and dear to your heart. at fedex, you must be one of the largest consumers of petroleum. how is it that the world economy and the shape you're describing gas prices until very recently had still been very high. >> i think this is really one of the most important things about the slow growth in the united states and the issues in europe that has not been widely recognized. over the last ten years, the
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average american middle-class family has seen the percentage of its disposal income spent on gasoline going from 4% to 6%. in 2001 people were spending about $1,350 or so, in that midd middle-class consuming family for gold topaz le for gasoline. in 2011 it was $2,613. so it's a 13% tax on consumption to do the same activities that were dub before. now, fortunately, there's this fantastic oil gansd revolution that's under way. the shale gas and the shale oil, so it may turn it around. but we're exporting about 350
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billion a year. >> that's the money we're paying to petroleum countries to. >> to import. >> you've dub a lot one a lot o this, energy independence but also alternate energy. the one place you'll always need petroleum is transport. >> it is. >> that's all you using is trucks and planes. talk about what you see as the future for trucks and even for pla planes? >> in the month of september, it was the biggest sales month ever for the toyota prius. that's a hybrid gas/electric vehicle. and the volt. that's a marvelous mode of transportation. it takes you away from petroleum and in for light-duty vehicles, hybrid electrics and pure electrics is a big part of our
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national security is buying f-35 fighter planes. so it is something that wepromo the same is true of natural gas for the heavier vehicles. >> do fedex trucks run on natural gas. >> we do. but now that there's the amount of gas that's available, there'll be a significant conversion to natural gas vehicles for industrial activities. electrification will be adopted in the commercial sector quicker because you drive more miles and the advantages of electric vehicles is about 80% over a gasoline engine. not 8%. it's 80% per mile cheaper to operate an electric vehicle than gasoline vehicle. so it's strictly the capital cost and as the progress and
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batteries keeps going, it will get better and bet smear what about planes, which is the final frontier? >> well, planes are the final frontier and natural gas, unless it's made into petroleum, which can be done, but it's capital-intensive, and it's mitts moremitt -- emits more co 2 and petroleum production. i think the more likely course is biofuels. >> you thank this will be the future? >> absolutely. >> how soon? >> you know, when te next seven to ten years you'll see a significant portion of it being produced with biofuel feed stocks, algae, urban waste, things of that nature, all of the things i just messaged are being done. they just have not gotten the cost per gone down, but it's on a good slope. >> let me ask you a final question. george bush's memoirs, something
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that didn't get a lot of notice. he twice asked you to be secretary of defense. you twice said no. if mitt romney wins is he going to get third time lucky? >> i'm sure if governor romney wins he has lots of qualified candidates that would be be a better candidate than i was at any point. >> fred smith, pleasure to have you on. >> thank you. >> and we will be back. the reason why more and more innovation is being concentrated in america is because it's the most fertile ground for innovation. a failure is not stigmatized. it's entrepreneurial. those are the things we need to do in the school. [ male announcer ] citi turns 200 this year. in that time there've been some good days. and some difficult ones. but, through it all, we've persevered,
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about everyone agrees the educational system is broken and there are many different p proproposals to fix it. if yu want to imagine a
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revolution lynn isten to sal kh. they have more than 3,400 instructional videos that have been viewed for free almost 200 million times. 's also the author of the one worst schoolhouse, education reimagined. welcome to gps. >> thanks for having me. >> you say it's almost athletic process. explain it to me. >> it is. your brain is -- i guess it's not officially a muscle but it is one of these things if you use it and use it well it will stay invigorate and there's a lot of science that backs that up and a lot of analogies that i draw to a classroom let's turn it more into athletic pralk it is where it's not me against the teachers and teacher is evaluating me. it's me and the students are working together to become better versions of ourselves. one thing i go to great pains to talk about in my book is the
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model, students all facing the chalk board and taking notes, this is not normally the way students learn. we inherited it from product shah, a kuntry that does not exist anymore. what's the ratio, those are important conversations. we're like we should free ourselves from the model as a whole and instead of saying how d do we become more like finland or south korea or singapore, what i argue for is we should become more americans. the reason more and more is. on pre tre muriel. those things we need to do in our school system. >> explain what does that look like in a physics claft f s cla? >> they're working at their own place. when you go to physic class, the teacher might get a dashboard. let me do a foe does
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intervention or, hey, sal's having trouble with it. fareed knows it let me pair them up and if i get really excited about astro physics, i can go degree deep. there's no such thing as missing class anymore because the students are working at their own pace and the teacher's there to mentor them. >> so it's highly customized in a sense. >> the whole reason why we have this kind of assembly line model of education that we inherited from the product shanns, they're the first people, very egalitarian motive. how do you educate everyone. 300 years ago not even got id indicated. as soon as you say you want to educate everyone, put them on batches, on an assembly line. throw information on them. you tear going to have good product. you're going to have bad product.
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you have tools that can leverage the physical classroom. >> do you imagine in your most ambitious moments that you have this whole debate about education going on brks you even done the end run. can you imagine restoring it enough that like south korea and singapore gets put to one side, we start a very american kind of indy individualual lis tick education and we end up on top. >> i'm very careful. my office is above a tea shop and we thing we have a long way to go ahead of us but part of the hope of this book is to change that conversation to show you, look, it's not pie-in-the-sky thinking. it's more pragmatic. but you're right how do we go to 15th from 14 on the pizza surveys. it's how do we lever language the strengths that are proven.
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how d we lever language those things in our school system. >> for somebody who has used the website with my son, the thing i have to wonder about, the first couple of thousand were just u you. the subjects range pretty broadly. phys physics, a lot of math, chemistry, do you really know that much physics, chemistry, and biology that you can do 2,000 minutes? >> i have prepared deeply. i prepare deeply. you know, the things i start off with, whether it's algebra or i have my background in finance, those came very naturally but once i started doing history or civics. >> physics was close to my heart. i was a bit of a physics and mathelete where i grew up. i did organic chemistry.
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i immersed myself in the field, started interviewing people, making sure i had the intuition so i could communicate. >> so it's been a on the job learning for you. >> it's an adventure formy. i could spend the rest of my life communicating and educat g educating. >> thank you. and we'll be back. [ female announcer ] imagine skin so healthy, it never gets dry again. can your moisturizer do that? [ female announcer ] dermatologist recommended
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50 years ago today president john f. kennedy decided u.s. ships would blockade cuba or what he called quarantine it.
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next day they would go into the cuban missile question. that brings me the question of the week. kennedy, castro, and khruschchev were the main players. who was his soviet counterpart. was it amolotov, b, gromyko, c, or d. stay tuned and we'll tell you the correct answer. don't forget tonight at 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. eastern and pacific, cn th win will broadcast global lessons: the dw ps roadmap for powering america. now you can read his writing in book form. he has a great new book, the signal and the noise, why so many predictions fail, but some don't. in it he explains how to think about statistics, probabilities,
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and polls. oh, and he throws in a chapter on chess as well. it's a once wonderland. and now for the last look. kim john un's wife has. been seen in over 40 days. it turns out she isn't the only thing that's disappeared from north korea recently. this stern looking portrait of kim sung has kept watch. as these before and after photos show, the great leader has been removed and these pajts of communist icons, lennon and marx, ousted. so kim unsung's square has had a makeover. what does appear to be in fashion this fall, a happier kim il-sung and a cheery king unjill. it's too bad these changes are cosmetic. it will take more than these